27 December 2014 -
For Bitcoin, currency is just the beginning, necessary to bootstrap the system, build mining infrastructure, secure the blockchain, and discourage spam. Recently there has been much talk of smart contracts, smart property, digital assets, and escrow, all of which benefit from the existence of a decentralized global ledger. That talk has been turned into action with a collection of projects with names like Mastercoin, Sidechains, Ethereum and Counterparty. Having researched each of these, I have decided to focus on Counterparty because I think it has the best mix of working code, current use cases and future possibilities. What follows is an overview of the various enhancements and capabilities Counterparty brings to Bitcoin today.
1. Fractional Ownership
In recent years, crowdfunding has enabled tons of folks to go from an idea or rough prototype to build at least a small business. The next frontier in the crowd-space is crowdequity where hundreds or thousands of investors buy a piece of a new enterprise. Counterparty makes crowdequity simple to setup and administer. Create a token and sell it via a token-vending service to grant ownership to shareholders. Later, you can pay dividends in XCP with a single click or hold a shareholder vote by issuing voting tokens to your shareholders.
Note that in the United States, there are restrictions on the number and accreditation of shareholders that may own a business. Hopefully this will change once the SEC finishes Section III of the JOBS Act. Overstock.com is also working on a platform called Medici that will use Counterparty to represent shares of public companies.
2. Bets & Prediction markets
Counterparty’s decentralized exchange (DEx) enables users to do trustless trade between native tokens like XCP and FLDC as well as with bitcoin. Similarly, Counterparty’s betting and contracts-for-difference features enable users to do trustless betting with XCP on virtually any event. These work by attaching a bet to data published by a third party in a broadcast transaction. By promising to report accurately about a future event (whether it be sporting, political, or economic) the broadcaster can collect a small fee while the bets themselves are offered, matched, and settled directly between users by the protocol. In this case there is no “house”; the closest thing is the broadcaster themselves who earn fees for their reporting.
One issue with this system is the possibility that an oracle may misreport an event outcome. In this case, bets can be corrected with later payments, or left as evidence of fraud. While building and trusting online reputation systems is an immense challenge there are ways to increase the cost to an oracle of going rogue, for example proof-of-burn, requiring significant investment in a related web presence or community, or by obtaining a surety bond.
You can play a fairly slow, but fully escrowed game of Rock Paper Scissors or [Rock Paper Scissors Lizard Spock](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rock-paper-scissors-lizard-Spock) with Counterparty.
4. Alternate Token Distribution Schemes
Bitcoin acheives security by rewarding miners for their work. At the same time, mining distributes the coins that will forever be traded in the system. With Counterparty, transactional security is provided by the Bitcoin network freeing token distribution schedules to better for an issuer’s needs.
Let’s Talk Bitcoin distributes LTBcoin according to a published schedule of diminishing issuance and is used as payment to reward certain behaviors in the community. It is accepted by the site for advertising slots and if you create a podcast or blog post, listen to a podcast, or even comment in the forums you earn a share of the week’s LTBcoin. Instead of mining for security, LTBcoins are earned by building content and community.
Another example is [FoldingCoin](http://davidsterry.com/blog/), a project started in mid-2014 where members of Stanford’s Folding@Home project can be paid a portion of daily FLDC distributions. With daily distribution fixed at 500,000 FLDC, a folder who contributes 1% of the FoldingCoin points earns 5000 FLDC. The points tallies are posted along with member addresses and Folding@Home usernames, making payouts transparent. There is a proposal in that system to change the distribution schedule to more closely match the halving rewards of Bitcoin. At the time of writing, this proposal is under a proof-of-stake vote by FLDC holders to decide on its enactment.
Creative, dependable token distribution provides an investor with the option to support not just an individual developer but a platform and an economy based on the token. If you think either of the above projects are doing valuable work or that the value of their tokens may increase, you can buy some to hold or redistribute towards advancement of their respective platforms.
5. Access Control
Advancements such as OAUTH and smart cards are growing in adoption, but what we use today largely depends upon shared secrets. Passwords and PINs have worked for decades but with the growing incidence of hacks on online services, retail and even banks, they are starting to show their limitations. Counterparty tokens can be used for access control and can marry different architectures to provide granular and dynamic access.
By using what’s called Token Controlled Viewpoint (TCV), each account on a service can be cryptographically associated with any number of Bitcoin addresses. Once linked, the inventory of tokens can enable your account to access and interact with certain services. This has been developed in the Let’s Talk Bitoin community where early members of the site received a token called EARLY that as entitles them to access the Founders Forum. Anyone can create an exclusive forum on their platform for a small fee. More imporantly, anyone can create their own forum (look up Tokenly for a head start) and with counterpartyd and a bit of code attach their own roles and responsibilities to holders of tokens.
With Counterparty you can acheive simple and inexpensive digital scarcity. Just create an asset, issue units of the asset and lock it. From then, there will never be another satoshi of that asset in the Counterparty universe. Use cases include collectibles (more on that below), currencies, points, shares, awards and medals – anything for which scarcity adds value.
That being said, Counterparty reserves 63-bits for token quantities which translates to 9.223372037×10¹⁸ units. Even if you make an asset divisible (to 8 decimal places), you can still have more than 92 billion finely divisible units in existence. So though you can have scarcity, you can also have amounts of points floating around that get people excited, like the several million points often awarded in a video game.
7. Proofs-of-existence and records of prediction
The broadcast feature need not be connected to a future event or bet. You could also use the system to encode that you are going to become captain of your football team in the next 12 months or that you will lose 10 pounds in 6. Being encoded in the Bitcoin block chain, the security of the system is strong enough that you could encode a prediction and proceed to reference it in legal documents in jurisdictions all around the world.
Counterparty also enables the separation of custody and ownership; trade from shipping; physical possession vs. the right to sell. Any pawn broker or secure storage facility can issue a digital asset representing an item or collection of items they hold. Rare coins, gold, silver, art, and collectibles are all candidates that may make sense to be traded in this way. The custodian merely needs to provide inventory reports and the name of the Counterparty asset that goes with each item or collection.
Trade is taken care of either on the DEx or off-chain with no custodial intervention necessary. The custodian can charge storage fees denominated in local currency and payable in BTC or XCP. If the storage fees go unpaid, the shop can liquidate the item and split the proceeds with the owner at some predetermined rate. Perhaps this would be a premium feature that customers will look for in the storage facilities in the future.
As you can see, there are many interesting use cases for Counterparty which wouldn’t be possible without the constant, excellent work of the Counterparty development team but also of the Bitcoin developers, miners, and everyone who has helped us all get to this point. To get started with Counterparty, visit https://counterparty.io.
Some pretty good discussion was generated by this article on Reddit at http://www.reddit.com/r/Bitcoin/comments/2qjlr1/8_ways_to_counterparty_new_features_counterparty/
9 November 2014 -
On Thursday Operation Onymous, a joint operation between several US and European law enforcement agencies was announced, shutting down between 20-400 sites running on Tor, arresting 17 people (releasing several after questioning), being sure to highlight that these sites are using Tor and that some are illegally selling drugs and/or weapons. Though Bitcoin was used by many of the markets that were shut down it was not the central headline on the story. Perhaps authorities have realized that Bitcoin is not their biggest problem – there are hundreds of similar currencies – but that being able to operate anonymous markets on the web is.
Tor users I spoke with are not rattled. They see it as a risk to run Tor, especially to run an exit node, which is a gateway between Tor users and the non-Tor sites they visit, and are impressed that the vast majority of hidden services are still online.
The general consensus is that Blake Benthall, who took over Silk Road 2 from one of a line of Dread Pirate Roberts, was careless on a number of fronts. The keyword here is operational security, maintaining separation between his offline identity and all activities related to operating Silk Road 2. Among his mistakes were tweeting about his bitcoin, retweeting previous Silk Road stories, purchasing a Tesla with his bitcoin. Most damning were that he allegedly signed up for server hosting for the Silk Road 2 hidden service using his personal Gmail address and received messages there that came from the administrative interface of SR2. He also hired people who were “just around” to help moderate the forums, one of whom was a government agent, and trusted them more than necessary. Finally, he worked from San Francisco, the same city where Ross Ulbricht, alleged operator of the original Silk Road was arrested.
According to the community, bigger and better run sites including Agora and Evolution are still online and serving customers. Only time will tell how long they last but depending on their own operational security and Tor itself they could run for years saving lives, violence, and jail time for many.
The closure of these services has highlighted another vulnerability with their architecture: they are centralized. One solution to the centralization problem has been in the works for several months going by the name Open Bazaar. OB operates as a peer-to-peer network like Bittorrent and Bitcoin and would allow vendors to establish and manage a reputation, offer goods and services, and collect funds. Though OB is not anonymous, it is designed to work well with Tor to add privacy to its censorship-resistant market features.
In other news, Facebook now offers access via Tor which is odd because Facebook is often viewed as THE big brother for privacy-concerned internet users. Still, it could bring a large amount of mundane Tor use and make it harder allege guilt-by-association for Tor users. At the same time, there is utility in enabling users in the most oppressive jurisdictions to access the leading social network platform even if many would not touch it.
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6 November 2014 -
Secret ballots exist to remove intimidation and bribery in voting. In 1970, Congress did away with secret ballots and so began a decades long slide into today’s world of lobbying, special interests, and a government that no longer works for the people. Congress must go back to secret ballots to reestablish confidence in the legislative process and in democracy itself. For the most important civics lesson you will ever receive, watch this:
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9 October 2014 -
If you have a GPU farm or a fast mining computer that no longer earns much Scrypt-mining, this guide will help you move to the ultimate ASIC-proof mining algorithm: protein folding!
In 5-10 minutes you will be earning FoldingCoin with your computer and at the same time you will be helping scientists around the world understand and make progress toward diseases like Alzheimer’s and Mad Cow disease.
1. Visit Counterwallet (opens in new tab) to create your Counterparty wallet. Once you open your new wallet, grab the first address by clicking on it, then right-click -> Copy.
2. Visit http://folding.stanford.edu/ (opens in new tab) and click Download to follow the setup of your Folding@Home software aka your mining software. When it’s time to enter your account name, use your address from Counterwallet as part of your account name:
FoldingCoin allows for merged folding so besides directing your earned tokens to your wallet address, your account name allows you to opt-in to mining all tokens(putting ALL instead of FLDC) or just one other specific one (putting that token’s symbol instead of FLDC). For more information on merged folding and selecting tokens to mine in addition to FLDC visit http://foldingcoin.net/alttokens/
3. Email the FoldingCoin administrator at firstname.lastname@example.org. In the body of the email, fill in your counterwallet address which should also be your Folding@Home username so they know who to credit the FLDC to.
4. Optional: Join Let’s Talk Bitcoin and register your counterwallet address using this quick guide: http://letstalkbitcoin.com/forum/post/easy-guide-to-sign-a-message-to-verify-your-ltb-address
Once you’ve both verified with LTB and received your first FLDC payment, you’ll be allowed into the FoldingCoin General forum here: http://letstalkbitcoin.com/forum/board/foldingcoin-general
That’s it! You should see your first FLDC payout in a day or two. Payments are sent daily.
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6 October 2014 -
Counterparty is a protocol for the creation and use of decentralized financial instruments using Bitcoin as a transport layer. The protocol currently supports
and implements the creation of assets, issuance of tokens of those assets, payment of dividends, protocol-escrowed trading, binary bets, and contracts-for-difference. The protocol has been operating since January 2014.
To enable the protocol to escrow value for decentralized trading and financial contracts such as binary bets and contracts-for-difference (CFD), there was a need for a common token of value in the Counterparty system. Similarly to how resources are spent to mine bitcoin, bitcoin was “burned” or irretreivably spent to create units of Counterparty’s native currency (XCP). During the 30-day proof-of-burn period in January 2014, 2.6 million XCP were created.
The earliest commits to Github of the Counterparty project were in December 2013. The project was announced with a release of the software on Bitcointalk.org on January 2nd, 2014. Since the software was released as free software, the proof-of-burn was started almost immediately opening on January 4th, 2014 and lasting until the 2nd of February. During this period, 2130 bitcoins (worth about $1.9 million at the time) were burned to create the XCP supply. To encourage investment in this system, each bitcoin was rewarded with from 1500 XCP to 1000 XCP at a rate which decreased linearly with each block found on the Bitcoin network during the burn period.
Since that time Counterparty has been responsible for over 77,000 transactions on the Bitcoin network. About 4,300 assets have been created and more than 7,000
informational broadcasts have been published, generally recording the outcomes of sporting events and currency exchange rates. Anyone can make these broadcasts thereby allowing Counterparty users enter into bets, binary bets and contracts for difference using them.
According to Blockscan.com, some of the most active assets include LTBCOIN, XCP, XBTC, EARLY, COMICCOIN, SJCX, and FLDC with numbers of transactions ranging from over 3300 for LTBCOIN to 800 for FLDC. In addition to the DEX, XCP trades on the Bter exchange and SJCX trades on Poloniex.
The Counterparty protocol supports decentralized, trustless trading of native tokens in two steps using a facility called Distributed Exchange (DEX). Since the protocol parses transactions recorded on Bitcoin’s block chain, corresponding buy and sell transactions of one token for another are automatically matched and can be considered executed when each have been recorded in a block. Bitcoin can also be traded using DEX by adding an additional step called the BTCpay transaction where by the protocol holds the Counterparty token in escrow for 20 blocks. If a BTCpay transaction is confirmed during that period, Counterparty considers the trade complete and considers the tokens to be then owned by the buyer.
Counterparty transactions are Bitcoin transactions. Depending on their form they may encode additional data in an OP_RETURN output or as additional addresses in a multisignature outut. Consensus is then achieved by interpreting the extra data in the Bitcoin block chain consistently. The Counterparty software does a check at Github for the latest minimum version required but other possibilities are being considered for ensuring that different services are interpreting the protocol and block chain consistently.
Counterparty is developed as a free open source software project under the MIT license. Several projects are hosted at Github under the link https://github.com/CounterpartyXCP which include counterpartyd, the core software; counterparty_build, the automated build system; and counterblockd, a json rpc service that provides information for counterwallet, the web wallet.
The core software has seen improvements or less since the beginning of the git history in December 2013. It uses a number of python libraries and specifies version numbers of those libraries during environment setup to ensure uniformity across installations.
Counterparty use largely revolves around Counterwallet, the free software web- based wallet hosted by the development team. The core team also manages a wiki and forum. Blockscan.com is a block explorer for Counterparty providing charts and information on transactions, assets, orders, bets and broadcasts. The counterpartyd code provides a JSON RPC interface but also uses an SQLite database to store its information which facilitates access to the information managed by the protocol.
Outside the core and informational services, a few projects are developing tools around the assets including for crowdfunding (Vennd.io, Koinify, Swarm) and
rewards programs (LTBcoin.com).
There are two forks for the Counterparty code. The first, called Clearinghouse runs on the separate block chain provided by Viacoin. The second is Dogeparty which was implemented by Humint.is on the Dogecoin block chain. Dogeparty initialized the balances of their own central token-of-value using the same proof of burn process used by Counterparty with some tweaks. Clearinghouse developers instead sold XCH by rewarding funds sent in Viacoin to an exodus address with the new currency. It should be noted that while each of these systems launched on their prospective block chains, there is nothing in the Counterparty code base that permanently ties an instance of the system to a particular block chain. Therefore should there be issues with the security of the network either system uses, the respective communities could opt to switch to another block chain.
Counterparty is a decentralized system for extended financial transactions that has seen steady development and adoption since its launch. The project and its network are young and many are working on competing systems that could pose significant risk to those who would get involved with the project or invest in its fledgling economy. Further study is advised before making decisions on investment of time or capital.
Update: Oct 23, 2014 Clearinghouse seems to have confusingly labeled their XCH initialization process as burning and a “Fire Sale” when in fact developers kept the funds instead of having them sent to an unspendable address.
Update: Nov 14, 2014 Counterparty announced two days ago that they have integrated Ethereum’s EVM contracts on testnet. This means that any smart contracts written for Ethereum will run on Counterparty on the Bitcoin block chain. Only two days later Ethereum, countered by implementing Counterparty’s smart contracts in Serpent, one of the languages for writing Ethereum EVM contracts. Innovation is alive and well in the Bitcoin 2.0 space!
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5 October 2014 -
From time to time, a project joins a gee-whiz technology with humane purpose. Such is the case with FoldingCoin. By mixing Stanford University’s Folding@Home (FAH) project with Bitcoin and a digital asset protocol called Counterparty this project cooks up a market around basic scientific research that could increase participation and accelerate scientific progress. Going a step further, FoldingCoin could serve as a model for supporting grand scientific endeavors with potential to solve big problems.
What is Folding@Home?
Proteins are the building blocks of biological systems. They are created from blueprints in DNA and RNA that tell the organism how to assemble amino acids. When these come together they join to create complicated and useful physical structures by folding in certain ways. Figuring out precisely how these proteins fold is a huge challenge but computers can help, as they have for almost 15 years in the Folding@Home project.
Folding@Home takes computations that help scientists understand protein folding, breaks them up into chunks and sends them out to members of the FAH community who run software on their computer CPUs and GPUs. The project tracks member progress and allows members to form teams to compete to see who can do the most folding work.
How might FoldingCoin change things?
Until now, the main incentive to folding has been altruistic, knowing that you were helping basic scientific research that could help find a cure for Alzheimers or Mad Cow disease. If you optimized your folding setup it may have been to get a higher rank for yourself or your team on the Folding@Home website. There may have been some self-interest as well as some folders undoubtedly know folks with a disease that is linked to protein folding errors.
With the introduction of FoldingCoin, a monetary incentive is added. Members receive a share of 500,000 foldingcoins (FLDC) that are released each day out of a total of one billion that will ever exist. Doing the math you’ll see that these coins will only be given out for about five and a half years. Of course, since FoldingCoin is built on Counterparty, a vote could easily be held among holders of the coin, FLDC, to extend issuance at the same or a reduced rate at that time. Since FLDC is locked at 1 billion coins ever via the Counterparty protocol, such an issuance would necessarily be in another token with a similar but not identical name.
The point is, there is a limited quantity of FLDC and only two ways to get it. Either start folding or purchase the coins from someone who already has them. Providing this monetary incentive could massively increase the amount of computational resources devoted to folding as some folders could offset some of their costs or even turn a profit by selling the FLDC they receive.
How can you get involved?
Just as has been true since the beginning of FAH, you can create an account and download the FAH software to begin folding. What is unique about FAH with FoldingCoin is that you can now get materially involved without ever committing a single work unit. For the first time, you can simply buy something to support the efforts of the entire folding enterprise.
To do so, you would create a Counterparty wallet at https://counterwallet.io and then place an order somewhere to purchase FLDC. If you have bitcoin, you can create an account at Masterxchange.com and trade your bitcoin directly for FLDC, then send that FLDC to your Counterwallet. It is also possible to trade for FLDC on the Counterparty distributed exchange which is managed by a strict protocol with no counterparty risk. Though it may be a bit more time consuming, the funds you trade will never leave your hands, all the better if you want to trade large amounts of FLDC and not worry whoever is holding your funds.
Depending on the success of the project you may be able to sell FLDC at a profit at a later date. Such a market for speculation attached to scientific research is truly novel. Besides trading FLDC for Bitcoin, XCP and other currencies, the project is attempting to get the token to be used as a currency itself in some well-defined scenarios.
Where can you find out more about this project?
http://foldingcoin.net is the official website. The most active forum is actually sort of members-only and is hosted on the letstalkbitcoin.com site. It is made members-only through that site’s feature called Token Controlled Viewpoint which requires that you have FLDC in order to view the forum. Short of that you can also check their Bitcointalk thread or ask about the project in the Counterparty forums (https://forums.counterparty.io).
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7 February 2013 -
Just wanted to post about a new mod I’m making available for MyBB. It was based on one called Buy Credit from the mybb.ro team. Anyway, it lets a forum admin sell their forum points/gold/tokens for bitcoins. It uses the very clean Blockchain.info API to get addresses and all funds get forwarded to the forum admin’s Bitcoin address of choice. For now the mod is available here. It has been submitted to the MyBB.com mods database so should be there once approved.
Here’s what it looks like at the moment of truth:
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24 August 2012 -
I just wanted to post a link to my new eBook that is available on Lulu and soon on BN/Nook/iBookstore and at CoinDL (which only accepts bitcoins). I wrote it because many people get caught up on technical details of Bitcoin which are totally unnecessary for initial use.
If you are interested in the technical details of Bitcoin, check out my Introduction to Bitcoin Mining or browse the excellent Bitcoin wiki
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26 April 2011 -
Motorola’s dual-core 1GHz Android-based phone, the Atrix, is notable because it’s the world’s first dual-core phone. Add to that the option to connect it to an optional laptop dock and the product is pleasantly unique. After more than 4 weeks of use, here are my impressions:
1. The phone is fast. This comes as no surprise since it’s dual-core and has a gig of RAM but so far it beats the pants off any other phone I’ve had. If I have any problems with the phone, it’s not me waiting for it to process something. Searching emails and contacts happens quickly but my biggest test was playing HD video on it while on the phone. Nary a glitch. For comparison, I didn’t have many problems with my last iPhone but my more recent Blackberry Curve 8900 frequently stalled while loading text messages and the browsing experience was truly discouraging.
2. The fingerprint reader is going to be a must have for me on any future phone. With the Atrix (and yes I refuse to call it Atrix, dropping the definite article…after all this is a thing, not a person) I happily set a strong pin knowing that I can quickly swipe my finger past the sensor to unlock it. This even works when the phone is docked.
3. The laptop dock was worth the purchase to quickly be able to hammer out a well-formatted email from time to time. I’ve played music, monitored my location via gps, and surfed the Internet all at the same time with only the most infrequent of audio glitches. For what the dock has hardware-wise, it could be cheaper however Motorola is offering a standout option here so some premium is to be expected. I like that it charges the phone while in the dock and I’ve had a blast being able to really multi-task with the laptop dock.
4. Android has tons of apps available and if you like freedom in your mobile software, Android is the only way to go. Since I do prefer to stick to free software apps if I can, F-Droid has been very helpful even if I just use it to select what I will later download via the Market.
5. Android’s browser is fast and fun to use. Besides loading pages well, the Android browser does a great job of resizing colums of text to eliminate the need for horizontal scrolling.
6. The keyboard could use some work. It often fails to correct common words I type and I’ve gotten into several capitalization battles with it. From what I can tell there’s no logic within it to know which keys are next to which. This sort of programming would really help it fix my typing errors. I’ve found in some cases just counting on it to fix as I go worked but it could definitely be better.
7. Cubed is a fantastic music player. I’m not going to review lots of apps but this one really enhances the experience not just as a phone but as a device for life. Two things are notable about the player…1) It downloads cover art for random MP3s and albums really well, automatically searching Flickr and other sources and 2) as you flip through your cover art, an experience lost since I physically handled CDs in jewel cases, it’s very easy to queue up album after album to create a great listening session.
There is much more to say of course but much of that would be about apps and not specific to the Atrix. Thanks for reading and if you have a tip for a better, hopefully free-software-licensed keyboard, I’d love to hear it.
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15 January 2011 -
A number of years ago I purchased a Yangqin for a relative but never saw it properly tuned. The yangqin is pronounced yawng followed by the word ‘seen’ but started with a t sound.
Today I learned a method to tune this instrument and since I couldn’t find any similar info on how it should be tuned I am going to document the process here. My hope is that someone else will have some guidance for tuning their yangqin or will point out any errors in what I ‘m doing. There a number of different layouts for yangqin depending on which part of China the instrument is made and what kind of music will be played on it. I am documenting here the layout for one that was purchased in Suzhou, China near Shanghai in 2004.
First a bit about the instrument: The yangqin is a Chinese percussion instrument with many sets of strings that are plucked or hit with small mallets. Individual notes are produced by groups of 1 to 5 strings that follow closely parallel paths on the instrument and are tuned to the same note. The tuning of each note(again made by from 1 to 5 strings) is combination of two mechanical settings.
The first setting is the tension set by using a tuning wrench to turn tuning keys on the right side of the instrument. The second setting is the position of a small metal cylinder that simulatneously changes the length of the vibrating section of the string as well as slightly changes the tension on the string. These metal cylinders rest on the wood face of the instrument or for the higher notes, there are pedestals built to support them.
The strategy I would follow to tune this instrument is first to set all the metal cylinders to the center of their range of motion. This will allow for simple minor adjustments later due to environmental changes. Then each individual string should be plucked and tuned with the big tuning wrench using a chromatic tuner(just like one would use for a guitar or other instrument). You can probably get a chromatic tuner app for your mobile phone if you have a smart one.
There are many strings on this instrument so this process is likely to take hours and I wouldn’t be surprised if each string needs to be tuned a couple of times due to changes overall in the tension on the instrument. Once it is done however, it should be possible to fine-tune it by moving slightly the metal cylinders.
The picture below shows the note that should be produced by hitting each position on the instrument. If a position doesn’t have a note, that means it’s not supposed to be played there. When in doubt if the strings go from a little white bridge to a metal cylinder then you can play it.
Now I’d like to explain the relationship between the notes on the instrument. The tuning described here has all notes in the key of C(so no sharps or flats) and the tuning goes from low on the side closest to you to high further away from you.
Using the note A as an example the blue A in column 2 (2) is one octave below the green A (4) which is one octave below the red A (6). So by playing the blue, green, and red As in sequence you hear three octaves of A ring together.
Note that the only set of bridges for which strings can be struck on either side is the longest column shown as columns 2 and 3.
Another octave relationship exists between columns 3 and 5 with the two Ds on the bottom being one octave apart. The yellow D is one octave higher than the uncolored one.
The last relationship required to figure this out(and I’m not really sure how column 1 fits into this) is going from right to left with the yellow squares and green A. This is best explained with a note line (like a number line).
If I start with the green A in the tuning chart, I should move down melodically four notes in the C-major scale to get the yellow D at the bottom of column 5. Then I should continue 4 notes lower in the C-major scale to get the yellow G at the bottom of column 6. Going the other direction from the green A, notes E and B in columns 3 and 2 respectively are 4 notes each up on the C-major scale.
I’m not sure that everyone will spell this instrument the same way in English so here are some other words that might be used to spell it to help those in need find this howto. yong, yang, chin, qin, tsien, chien, yongtsien, yongqin, yongchin, yongchien, yangtsien, yangqin, yangchin, yangchien. Yes, I’m aware a good search engine would do this kind of translation already but I have no idea how that works for Englishified chinese syllables.
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